Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al

The plasticity and growth of plant cell walls (CWs) is still not sufficiently understood on its molecular level. *

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been shown to be a powerful tool to measure the stiffness of plant tissues. *

In the article “Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in the combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al” Harinderbir Kaur, Jean-Marie Teulon, Christian Godon, Thierry Desnos, Shu-wen W. Chen and Jean-Luc Pellequer describe the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe elastic responses of the root transition zone of 4-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and almt1-mutant seedlings grown under Fe or Al stresses. *

In order to evaluate the relationship between root extension and root cell wall elasticity, the authors used Atomic Force Microscopy to perform vertical indentations on surfaces of living plant roots. *

NanoWorld Pyrex-Nitride silicon-nitride PNP-TR AFM probes with triangular AFM cantilevers were used for the nanoindentation experiments with atomic force microscopy. (PNP-TR AFM cantilever beam 2 (CB2) with a typical force constant of 0.08 N/m and a typical resonant frequency of 17 kHz, typical AFM tip radius 10 nm, macroscopic half cone angles 35°). *

Force-distance (F-D) curves were measured using the Atomic Force Microscope and the PNP-TR AFM tips. *

Because of the heterogeneity of seedling CW surfaces, Harinderbir Kaur et al. used the recently developed trimechanics-3PCS framework for interpreting force-distance curves. The trimechanics-3PCS framework allows the extraction of both stiffness and elasticity along the depth of indentation and permits the investigation of the variation of stiffness with varied depth for biomaterials of heterogeneous elasticity responding to an external force. *

A glass slide with a glued seedling (see Figure 1 cited below) was positioned under the AFM cantilever with the help of an AFM optical camera. Due to the large motorized sample stage of the AFM, the glass slide was adjusted in such a way that the AFM cantilever could be positioned perpendicularly at the longitudinal middle of the glued root. The target working area, the transition zone, was 500 µm away from the root apex, almost twice the length of PNP-TR AFM cantilever. *

As shown in the article the presence of single metal species Fe2+ or Al3+ at 10 μM exerts no noticeable effect on the root growth compared with the control conditions. On the contrary, a mix of both the metal ions produced a strong root-extension arrest concomitant with significant increase of CW stiffness. *

Raising the concentration of either Fe2+or Al3+ to 20 μM, no root-extension arrest was observed; nevertheless, an increase in root stiffness occurred. In the presence of both the metal ions at 10 μM, root-extension arrest was not observed in the almt1 mutant, which substantially abolishes the ability to exude malate. The authors’ results indicate that the combination of Fe2+and Al3+ with exuded malate is crucial for both CW stiffening and root-extension arrest. *

It is shown that the elasticity of plant CW is sensitive and can be used to assess abiotic stresses on plant growth and stiffening. *

However, stiffness increase induced by single Fe2+ or Al3+ is not sufficient for arresting root growth in the described experimental conditions and unexpectedly, the stiffening and the phenotype of seedling roots such as REA are not directly correlated. *

Figure 1 from Harinderbir Kaur et al. 2024 “Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in the combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al”:Principle of nanomechanical measurement of seedling roots with atomic force microscopy. A seedling root (R) is deposited on a microscope slide using silicon glue (N, for Nusil). A fastening band of silicon is seen near the tip of the root (T). The thickness of the fastening band must be thin enough to avoid hindering the AFM support (S), but thick enough to withstand the bending of the root tip. The root is placed under the AFM cantilever (C) as observed by the AFM optical camera. The triangular shaped cantilever (200 µm long) was placed 500 µm away from the root tip in the transition zone where nanoindentation measurements proceeded (as shown). The seedling root and the AFM cantilever are placed within a liquid environment (growth solution, see Supplementary file of the cited article). AFM, atomic force microscopy. NanoWorld Pyrex-Nitride silicon-nitride PNP-TR AFM probes with triangular AFM cantilevers were used for the nanoindentation experiments with atomic force microscopy.
Figure 1 from Harinderbir Kaur et al. 2024 “Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in the combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al”:
Principle of nanomechanical measurement of seedling roots with atomic force microscopy.
A seedling root (R) is deposited on a microscope slide using silicon glue (N, for Nusil). A fastening band of silicon is seen near the tip of the root (T). The thickness of the fastening band must be thin enough to avoid hindering the AFM support (S), but thick enough to withstand the bending of the root tip. The root is placed under the AFM cantilever (C) as observed by the AFM optical camera. The triangular shaped cantilever (200 µm long) was placed 500 µm away from the root tip in the transition zone where nanoindentation measurements proceeded (as shown). The seedling root and the AFM cantilever are placed within a liquid environment (growth solution, see Supplementary file of the cited article). AFM, atomic force microscopy.

*Harinderbir Kaur, Jean‐Marie Teulon, Christian Godon, Thierry Desnos, Shu‐wen W. Chen and Jean‐Luc Pellequer
Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in the combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al
Plant, Cell & Environment 2024; 47:574–584
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.14744

The article “Correlation between plant cell wall stiffening and root extension arrest phenotype in the combined abiotic stress of Fe and Al” by Harinderbir Kaur, Jean‐Marie Teulon, Christian Godon, Thierry Desnos, Shu‐wen W. Chen and Jean‐Luc Pellequer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation

Atomic Force Microscopy ( AFM ) can be utilized to determine the mechanical properties of tumor tissues in different kinds of cancers, for example breast cancer, liver cancer and lung cancer.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common subtype of head and neck and other malignant tumors that occurs in increasing numbers. It is therefore important to learn more about the biological factors connected with the early diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. *

The human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), which is also called tumor-associated calcium signal transduction-2 (TACSTD-2), is a surface glycoprotein encoded by TACSTD. *

Among the various biochemical mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, the role of β-catenin has been studied extensively. This has shed light on the biological functions of TROP2 and its use as a prognostic biomarker for OSCC. *

TROP2 regulates tumorigenic properties including cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and migration and is overexpressed in many human cancers. Inhibiting TROP2 expression has shown promise in clinical applications. *

In the article “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation” Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang investigate the role of TROP2 in OSCC patients using a combination of biophysical approaches including atomic force microscopy. *

The authors demonstrate the tissue morphology and mechanics of OSCC samples during tumor development using NanoWorld Pointprobe® CONTR AFM probes for the Atomic Force Microscopy described in the article and they believe that their findings will help develop TROP2 in accurately diagnosing OSCC in tumors with different grades of differentiation. *

Figure 5 from Baoping Zhang et al. “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation”:
Surface morphology of OSCC tissue sections via AFM detection, irregular morphology appeared in the low differentiation
NanoWorld Pointprobe CONTR AFM probes were used for the Atomic Force Microscopy
Figure 5 from Baoping Zhang et al. “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation”:
Surface morphology of OSCC tissue sections via AFM detection, irregular morphology appeared in the low differentiation

*Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang
Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation
BMC Cancer volume 20, Article number: 815 (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07257-7

Please follow this external link to read the whole article: https://rdcu.be/cfC9G

Open Access : The article “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation” by Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP

Quantifying the adaptive mechanical behavior of living cells is essential for the understanding of their inner working and function.*

In their article “Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP” Mark Skamrahl, Huw Colin‐York, Liliana Barbieri and Marco Fritzsche use a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is introduced which offers simultaneous quantification and direct correlation of molecule kinetics and mechanics in living cells.*

Simultaneous quantification of the relationship between molecule kinetics and cell mechanics may thus open up unprecedented insights into adaptive mechanobiological mechanisms of cells.*

For the AFM nanoindentation tests described in their publication the authors used NanoWorld Arrow-TL2 tipless cantilevers that were functionalized with a polystyrene bead with 5 µm radius.*

 Figure 1 a from “Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP” by M. Skamrahl et al.: 
 Establishment and calibration of the optomechanical AFM–FRAP platform. a) Schematic of the AFM–FRAP setup illustrating the experimental power of simultaneous quantification of molecule kinetics and cell mechanics
Figure 1 a from “Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP” by M. Skamrahl et al.:
Establishment and calibration of the optomechanical AFM–FRAP platform. a) Schematic of the AFM–FRAP setup illustrating the experimental power of simultaneous quantification of molecule kinetics and cell mechanics

*Mark Skamrahl, Huw Colin‐York, Liliana Barbieri, Marco Fritzsche
Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP
Small 2019, 1902202
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201902202

Please follow this external link to the full article https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201902202

Open Access: The article « Simultaneous Quantification of the Interplay Between Molecular Turnover and Cell Mechanics by AFM–FRAP » by Mark Skamrahl, Huw Colin‐York, Liliana Barbieri and Marco Fritzsche is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other thirdparty material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.