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  • the Pointprobe® Silicon AFM probe series is the most widely used and best-know AFM tips series worldwide
  • the Arrow Silicon AFM probes series offers optimized positioning through maximized AFM tip visibility
  • the Ultra-Short Cantilever Series offers six different kinds of AFM tips for High Speed Atomic Force Microscopy ( HS-AFM ) in air and in liquid for up to video rate scanning
  • and the Pyrex-Nitride Silicon Nitride AFM probe series which is designed for various imaging applications in contact mode and dynamic mode AFM

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Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation

Atomic Force Microscopy ( AFM ) can be utilized to determine the mechanical properties of tumor tissues in different kinds of cancers, for example breast cancer, liver cancer and lung cancer.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common subtype of head and neck and other malignant tumors that occurs in increasing numbers. It is therefore important to learn more about the biological factors connected with the early diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. *

The human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), which is also called tumor-associated calcium signal transduction-2 (TACSTD-2), is a surface glycoprotein encoded by TACSTD. *

Among the various biochemical mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, the role of β-catenin has been studied extensively. This has shed light on the biological functions of TROP2 and its use as a prognostic biomarker for OSCC. *

TROP2 regulates tumorigenic properties including cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and migration and is overexpressed in many human cancers. Inhibiting TROP2 expression has shown promise in clinical applications. *

In the article “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation” Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang investigate the role of TROP2 in OSCC patients using a combination of biophysical approaches including atomic force microscopy. *

The authors demonstrate the tissue morphology and mechanics of OSCC samples during tumor development using NanoWorld Pointprobe® CONTR AFM probes for the Atomic Force Microscopy described in the article and they believe that their findings will help develop TROP2 in accurately diagnosing OSCC in tumors with different grades of differentiation. *

Figure 5 from Baoping Zhang et al. “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation”:
Surface morphology of OSCC tissue sections via AFM detection, irregular morphology appeared in the low differentiation
NanoWorld Pointprobe CONTR AFM probes were used for the Atomic Force Microscopy
Figure 5 from Baoping Zhang et al. “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation”:
Surface morphology of OSCC tissue sections via AFM detection, irregular morphology appeared in the low differentiation

*Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang
Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation
BMC Cancer volume 20, Article number: 815 (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07257-7

Please follow this external link to read the whole article: https://rdcu.be/cfC9G

Open Access : The article “Tissue mechanics and expression of TROP2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma with varying differentiation” by Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition

Because of the global climate change, energy-saving and sustainable technologies are becoming more and more important. Therefore, the demands on technologies for the conversion, storage and use of renewable energies are constantly growing. *

The building sector plays an important role in terms of energy saving potential. *

In particular, the class of so-called smart windows offers an approach to save energy in the building sector by efficiently regulating incident light. *

Chromogenic thin films are crucial building blocks in smart windows to modulate the flux of visible light and heat radiation into buildings. *

Due to their diversity in composition and structure as well as their superior performance, electrochromism based on thin film transition metal oxides has become increasingly important in the last decade. *

Electrochromic materials such as tungsten oxide are well established in those devices. Sputter deposition offers a well-suited method for the production of such layers, which can also be used on an industrial scale. *

The EC properties of tungsten oxide layers depend on the composition, the crystal structure and the morphology. *

The film characteristics are strongly dependent on the growth technique. *

In the article “Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition” Mario Gies, Fabian Michel, Christian Lupó, Derck Schlettwein, Martin Becker and Angelika Polity describe how Tungsten oxide thin films were grown by ion-beam sputter deposition (IBSD), a less common sputtering variant. *

They then show the possibility of influencing technologically relevant samples characteristics by using different preparation parameters (e.g., gas mixture or growth temperature). This allows to tune the elemental composition, optical properties or to influence the structure and the degree of crystallization in the resulting thin films. *

The high reproducibility as well as the high purity of IBSD-grown layers render ion-beam sputter deposition a suitable candidate for growth of tungsten oxide and, most likely, other chromogenic materials. *

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were conducted to analyze the crystallite surface structure.

For the AFM investigations in air NanoWorld® Pointprobe® SEIHR AFM probes designed for soft non-contact mode imaging were used. (typical resonance frequency 130 kHz, typical force constant 15 N/m ). *

Figure 2 g, h and i from "Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition" by Miario Gies et al. In Fig. 2 g, the surface of a sample deposited at RT and a moderate O2 flux of 5.15 sccm is shown as analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy ( AFM ). Individual grains of about 0.2 μm size appear interconnected without sharply defined grain boundaries. The root-mean-square surface roughness was determined to be around 9 nm. In comparison, Fig. 2h shows the morphology of a sample synthesized at RT under oxygen-poor conditions. Again, no sharply defined grains are recognizable. However, the grains seem to be a bit more extended. The determined roughness of the surface is approximately 7 nm. At an increased deposition temperature of 400 ∘C, larger round-shaped grains of about 0.5 μm lateral expansion were obtained, cf. Fig. 2i, leading to an increased roughness of around 20 nm, much higher than for the unheated samples. NanoWorld Pointprobe SEIHR AFM probes were used.
Figure 2 g, h and i from “Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition” by Mario Gies et al.:
AFM images of samples, deposited at room temperature under a moderate O2 flux of 5.15 sccm (g) and under oxygen-poor conditions (h). Compared to the surface of a sample grown at 400 ∘C (i), the surface roughness is significantly smoother. For the full figure please refer to the full article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10853-020-05321-y

*Mario Gies, Fabian Michel, Christian Lupó, Derck Schlettwein, Martin Becker and Angelika Polity
Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition
Journal of Materials Science (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-05321-y

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10853-020-05321-y

Open Access : The article “Electrochromic switching of tungsten oxide films grown by reactive ion-beam sputter deposition” by Mario Gies, Fabian Michel, Christian Lupó, Derck Schlettwein, Martin Becker and Angelika Polity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.