Flexible Robust and High‐Density FeRAM from Array of Organic Ferroelectric Nano‐Lamellae by Self‐Assembly

Ferroelectric memories are endowed with high data storage density by nanostructure designing, while the robustness is also impaired. For organic ferroelectrics favored by flexible memories, low Curie transition temperature limits their thermal stability.*

In their article “Flexible Robust and High‐Density FeRAM from Array of Organic Ferroelectric Nano‐Lamellae by Self‐Assembly “ Mengfan Guo, Jianyong Jiang, Jianfeng Qian, Chen Liu, Jing Ma, Ce‐Wen Nan and Yang Shen demonstrate that a ferroelectric random access memory ( FeRAM ) with high thermal stability and data storage density of ≈60 GB inch−2 could be achieved from an array of edge‐on nano‐lamellae by low‐temperature self‐assembly of P(VDF‐TrFE).*

The self‐assembled P(VDF‐TrFE) described in the article exhibits high storage density of 60 GB inch−2 as a prototype of flexible FeRAM. The authors experimentally determine the self‐assembled FeRAM stored data more robustly, with temperature endurance enhanced over 10 °C and reliable thermal cycling ability. The article shows a novel path to address the thermal stability issues in organic FeRAMs and presents a detailed analysis about the origin of enhanced performance in aligned P(VDF‐TrFE). *

NanoWorld Arrow-CONTPt AFM probes with a conducting Pt/Ir coating were used for the Piezoresponse Force Microscopy ( PFM ) measurements described in this article.

Figure 4 from “Flexible Robust and High‐Density FeRAM from Array of Organic Ferroelectric Nano‐Lamellae by Self‐Assembly” by Mengfan Guo et al.:
Enhanced thermal stability in SA P(VDF‐TrFE). a–c) PFM images of data stored in self‐assembled film at a) 25 °C and b) 90 °C, as well as c) numeric figure of residual area of reversal domains as a function of elevated temperature in a SA film (blue) and a NSA film (red). d) Numeric figure of residual area of reversal domains as a function of thermal cycles in a SA film (blue) and a NSA film (red). Scale bars: 200 nm.

*Mengfan Guo, Jianyong Jiang, Jianfeng Qian, Chen Liu, Jing Ma, Ce‐Wen Nan, Yang Shen
Flexible Robust and High‐Density FeRAM from Array of Organic Ferroelectric Nano‐Lamellae by Self‐Assembly
Advanced Science, Volume6, Issue6, March 20, 2019, 1801931
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.201801931

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/advs.201801931

Open Access: The article « Flexible Robust and High‐Density FeRAM from Array of Organic Ferroelectric Nano‐Lamellae by Self‐Assembly » by Mengfan Guo, Jianyong Jiang, Jianfeng Qian, Chen Liu, Jing Ma, Ce‐Wen Nan and Yang Shen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Cellulose carbamate derived cellulose thin films: preparation, characterization and blending with cellulose xanthate

Despite being rather old, the Viscose process still is the most important and frequently used technology for the production of regenerated wood based fibers with annual production volumes exceeding 3.5 million tons, mainly for the textile industry.*

However, there are several environmental drawbacks of this technology. For instance, the necessity to use CS2 to form the cellulose precursor material (cellulose xanthate, CX), as well as the development of volatile sulfur containing compounds (e.g. H2S, COS) during the regeneration procedure requires complex recovery technologies, which manifest into higher prices of the final fiber products.*

Another technology that has raised attention in recent years is the Carbacell process. The Carbacell process relies on cellulose carbamate (CC), which is easily obtained by reacting cellulose with urea. CC is soluble in cold alkali and can be subjected to wet spinning processes similar to those in viscose plants.*

In their article: “Cellulose carbamate derived cellulose thin films: preparation, characterization and blending with cellulose xanthate” Michael Weißl, Mathias Andreas Hobisch, Leena Sisko Johansson, Kay Hettrich, Eero Kontturi, Bert Volkert and Stefan Spirk introduce a new system for manufacturing cellulose thin films based on ecofriendly CC. *

Since CC is water soluble, the use of organic solvents is omitted compared to the other often employed cellulose derivative, TMSC. In addition, CC can be synthesized in large scale via environmentally friendly procedures. The regeneration process itself does not require any additional treatment but is induced by increasing the NaOH concentration during the spin-coating via evaporation of the water, as confirmed by IR and XPS spectroscopy.*

Atomic Force Microscopy in tapping mode using a NanoWorld Arrow-NCR AFM probe was employed to gain further information about the surface morphology and structure of the CC films.

Fig. 3 from “Cellulose carbamate derived cellulose thin films: preparation, characterization and blending with cellulose xanthate” by Michael Weißl et al.:
2 × 2 µm2 AFM height (upper row) and phase (lower row) images of CC based thin films after spin coating and rinsing with water; starting with concentrations from 1.0 to 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 wt%

*Michael Weißl, Mathias Andreas Hobisch, Leena Sisko Johansson, Kay Hettrich, Eero Kontturi, Bert Volkert, Stefan Spirk
Cellulose carbamate derived cellulose thin films: preparation, characterization and blending with cellulose xanthate
Cellulose, August 2019, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 7399–7410
Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-019-02600-z

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10570-019-02600-z

Open Access: The paper « Cellulose carbamate derived cellulose thin films: preparation, characterization and blending with cellulose xanthate » by Michael Weißl, Mathias Andreas Hobisch, Leena Sisko Johansson, Kay Hettrich, Eero Kontturi, Bert Volkert and Stefan Spirk is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Analysis of long dsRNA produced in vitro and in vivo using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC

Long double-stranded (ds) RNA is emerging as a novel alternative to chemical and genetically-modified insect and fungal management strategies. The ability to produce large quantities of dsRNA in either bacterial systems, by in vitro transcription, in cell-free systems or in planta for RNA interference applications has generated significant demand for the development and application of analytical tools for analysis of dsRNA.*

In their article “Analysis of long dsRNA produced in vitro and in vivo using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC” Alison O. Nwokeoji, Sandip Kumar, Peter M. Kilby, David E. Portwood, Jamie K. Hobbs and Mark J. Dickman have utilised atomic force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC) to provide novel insight into dsRNA for RNAi applications.*

The AFM analysis enabled direct structural characterisation of the A-form duplex dsRNA and accurate determination of the dsRNA duplex length.*

The work presented in this study demonstrates the ability of AFM in conjunction with IP RP HPLC to rapidly assess sample heterogeneity and provide important structural information regarding dsRNA.*

For the high resolution images presented in Fig. 1(A, B) and 2(B) in the article NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers USC-F1.2-k0.15 with a High Density Carbon tip (nominal values: tip radius 10 nm, cantilever length 7 μm, stiffness 0.15 N m−1, resonant frequency 1200 kHz in air) were tuned to 600–650 kHz, oscillated at a free amplitude of <30 mV and scanned at a rate of 0.4–1.0 μm s−1,to visualize the dsRNA and dsDNA grooves.*


Fig. 1 A and B from “Analysis of long dsRNA produced in vitro and in vivo using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC” by Alison O. Nwokeoji et al. :
Analysis of dsRNA monomers, multimers and higher order assemblies under non-denaturing conditions. Non-denaturing gel electrophoretograms (A) in vivo synthesised dsRNA (521 bp and 698 bp) (B) in vitro synthesised dsRNA (504 bp). Each dsRNA sample was run in duplicate. The proposed dsRNA multimers or higher order assemblies with reduced electrophoretic mobility are highlighted above the corresponding dsRNA main band.

*Alison O. Nwokeoji, Sandip Kumar,Peter M. Kilby, David E. Portwood, Jamie K. Hobbs and Mark J. Dickman
Analysis of long dsRNA produced in vitro and in vivo using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC
Analyst, 2019,144, 4985
DOI: 10.1039/c9an00954j

Please follow this external link for the full article: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/an/c9an00954j

Open Access: The article « Analysis of long dsRNA produced in vitro and in vivo using atomic force microscopy in conjunction with ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC  by Alison O. Nwokeoji, Sandip Kumar,Peter M. Kilby, David E. Portwood, Jamie K. Hobbs and Mark J. Dickman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.