Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions

Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are gated by diverse intra- and extracellular stimuli leading to cation inflow (Na+, Ca2+) regulating many cellular processes and initiating organismic somatosensation. *

Structures of most TRP channels have been solved. However, structural and sequence analysis showed that ~30% of the TRP channel sequences, mainly the N- and C-termini, are intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Unfortunately, very little is known about IDR ‘structure’, dynamics and function, though it has been shown that they are essential for native channel function. *

In the article “Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions”, Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari, Grigory Tagiltsev, Ruth A. Pumroy, Yining Jiang, Martin Blackledge, Vera Y. Moiseenkova-Bell and Simon Scheuring imaged TRPV2 channels in membranes using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). *

The dynamic single molecule imaging capability of HS-AFM allowed the authors to visualize IDRs and revealed that N-terminal IDRs were involved in intermolecular interactions. Their work provides evidence about the ‘structure’ of the TRPV2 IDRs, and that the IDRs may mediate protein-protein interactions. *

In total, 1.5 µl of the TRPV2 reconstituted vesicles were deposited on a 1.5-mm2 freshly cleaved mica surface, which was glued with epoxy to the quartz sample stage. After 20–30 min incubation, the sample was gently rinsed with imaging buffer (20 mM Hepes, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl) and mounted in the HS-AFM fluid cell. All images in this study were taken using a HS-AFM operated in amplitude modulation mode using optimized scan and feedback parameters and lab-built amplitude detectors and free amplitude stabilizers. *

Short (8 µm) cantilevers (NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers for High-Speed AFM USC-F1.2-k0.15) with nominal spring constant of 0.15 N/m, resonance frequency of 0.6 MHz, and a quality factor of ∼1.5 in liquid were used. AFM probes were sharpened using oxygen plasma etching to obtain better resolution. *

Fig. 1 from “Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions” by Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari et al. :TRPV2 reconstitution for HS-AFM analysis. b Overview HS-AFM images (Supplementary Movie 1) of TRPV2 (windmill-shaped molecules) in soy polar lipid membranes on mica (dark background areas). False color scale: 0–9 nm. The white oversaturated areas have a height of ~26 nm and represent likely non-ruptured small vesicles. NanoWorld-USC-F1.2-k0.15 AFM probes were used for the HS-AFM
Fig. 1 from “Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions” by Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari et al. :
TRPV2 reconstitution for HS-AFM analysis.
b Overview HS-AFM images (Supplementary Movie 1) of TRPV2 (windmill-shaped molecules) in soy polar lipid membranes on mica (dark background areas). False color scale: 0–9 nm. The white oversaturated areas have a height of ~26 nm and represent likely non-ruptured small vesicles.
Fig. 1 from “Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions” by Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari et al. : TRPV2 reconstitution for HS-AFM analysis. a Negative-stain EM of TRPV2 reconstituted into soy polar lipids at a lipid-to-protein ratio of 0.7. Protruding features (arrow) at the vesicle periphery and the strong contrast of the proteins in the vesicle in the negative-stain EM are indicative of inside-out reconstitution of the TRPV2 channels with the large cytoplasmic domains exposed to the outside of the vesicle. b Overview HS-AFM images (Supplementary Movie 1) of TRPV2 (windmill-shaped molecules) in soy polar lipid membranes on mica (dark background areas). False color scale: 0–9 nm. The white oversaturated areas have a height of ~26 nm and represent likely non-ruptured small vesicles. c Height distribution of TRPV2 above mica from (b). TRPV2 has a full height of 9.5 ± 0.1 nm above mica, in good agreement with the TRPV2 cryo-EM structure. Inset: Cryo-EM structure PDB 6U84 shown with the intracellular side up (as imaged by HS-AFM), membrane indicated in light gray. Short (8 µm) cantilevers (NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers for High-Speed AFM USC-F1.2-k0.15,) with nominal spring constant of 0.15 N/m, resonance frequency of 0.6 MHz, and a quality factor of ∼1.5 in liquid were used. AFM probes were sharpened using oxygen plasma etching to obtain better resolution. *
Fig. 1 from “Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions” by Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari et al. :
TRPV2 reconstitution for HS-AFM analysis.
a Negative-stain EM of TRPV2 reconstituted into soy polar lipids at a lipid-to-protein ratio of 0.7. Protruding features (arrow) at the vesicle periphery and the strong contrast of the proteins in the vesicle in the negative-stain EM are indicative of inside-out reconstitution of the TRPV2 channels with the large cytoplasmic domains exposed to the outside of the vesicle. b Overview HS-AFM images (Supplementary Movie 1) of TRPV2 (windmill-shaped molecules) in soy polar lipid membranes on mica (dark background areas). False color scale: 0–9 nm. The white oversaturated areas have a height of ~26 nm and represent likely non-ruptured small vesicles. c Height distribution of TRPV2 above mica from (b). TRPV2 has a full height of 9.5 ± 0.1 nm above mica, in good agreement with the TRPV2 cryo-EM structure. Inset: Cryo-EM structure PDB 6U84 shown with the intracellular side up (as imaged by HS-AFM), membrane indicated in light gray.

 

*Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari, Grigory Tagiltsev, Ruth A. Pumroy, Yining Jiang, Martin Blackledge, Vera Y. Moiseenkova-Bell and Simon Scheuring
Intrinsically disordered regions in TRPV2 mediate protein-protein interactions
Communications Biology volume 6, Article number: 966 (2023)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-023-05343-7

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The article “Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response” by Raghavendar R. Sanganna Gari, Grigory Tagiltsev, Ruth A. Pumroy, Yining Jiang, Martin Blackledge, Vera Y. Moiseenkova-Bell and Simon Scheuring is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response

Liquid–liquid phase-separated biomolecular condensates, liquid droplets play an important role in many biological processes, such as gene expression, protein translation, stress response, and protein degradation, by incorporating a variety of RNA and client proteins into their interior depending on the intracellular context. *

Autophagy is involved in the degradation of several cytoplasmic liquid droplets, including stress granules and P bodies, and defects in this process are thought to cause transition of these droplets to the solid phase, resulting in the development of intractable diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. *

Of the droplets that have a unique biological function and are degraded by autophagy, p62 bodies (also called p62 droplets) are liquid droplets formed by liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) of p62 and its binding partners, ubiquitinated proteins. *

p62 bodies are involved in the regulation of intracellular proteostasis through their own autophagic degradation, and also contribute to the regulation of the major stress-response mechanism by sequestration of a client protein, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1). *

NRF2 is a transcription factor responsible for antioxidant stress responses that is usually regulated in a redox-dependent manner. p62 bodies formed by liquid–liquid phase separation contain Ser349-phosphorylated p62, which participates in the redox-independent activation of NRF2. *

However, the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of p62 phosphorylation remain unclear. *

In the article “Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response” Ryo Ikeda, Daisuke Noshiro, Hideaki Morishita, Shuhei Takada, Shun Kageyama, Yuko Fujioka, Tomoko Funakoshi, Satoko Komatsu-Hirota, Ritsuko Arai, Elena Ryzhii, Manabu Abe, Tomoaki Koga, Hozumi Motohashi, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Kenji Sakimura, Arata Horii, Satoshi Waguri, Yoshinobu Ichimura, Nobuo N Noda and Masaaki Komatsu identify ULK1 as a kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of p62. *

ULK1 colocalizes with p62 bodies, directly interacting with p62. ULK1-dependent phosphorylation of p62 allows KEAP1 to be retained within p62 bodies, thus activating NRF2. p62S351E/+ mice are phosphomimetic knock-in mice in which Ser351, corresponding to human Ser349, is replaced by Glu. *

These mice, but not their phosphodefective p62S351A/S351A counterparts, exhibit NRF2 hyperactivation and growth retardation. This retardation is caused by malnutrition and dehydration due to obstruction of the esophagus and forestomach secondary to hyperkeratosis, a phenotype also observed in systemic Keap1-knockout mice. *

The authors’ results expand our understanding of the physiological importance of the redox-independent NRF2 activation pathway and provide new insights into the role of phase separation in this process. *

To clarify whether the ULK1 kinase itself has an effect on the physical properties and physiological role of p62 bodies, Ryo Ikeda et al. first studied the physical interaction of p62 with ULK1 or its yeast homolog Atg1 using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). *

HS-AFM of p62 (268–440 aa) visualized a homodimeric structure, mediated by the dimerization of the UBA domain, that formed a hammer-shaped structure with IDRs wrapped around each other. *

HS-AFM images were acquired in tapping mode using a sample-scanning HS-AFM instrument. NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers of the  USC-F1.2-k0.15 AFM probe type were used. ( ~7 μm long, ~2 μm wide, and ~0.08 μm thick with electron beam-deposited (EBD) tips (tip radius < 10 nm). Their resonant frequency and spring constant were 1.2 MHz in air and 0.15 N/m, respectively.*

Figure EV1 from “Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response” by Ryo Ikeda et al.:HS-AFM observation of SNAP-ULK1 and p62 (268–440 aa), and complex of SNAP-Atg1/p62 (268–440 aa) A, B. Successive HS-AFM images of SNAP-ULK1 (A) and p62_268–440 (B). Height scale: 0–4.4 nm (A), 0–3.4 nm (B); scale bar: 20 nm (A, B). C. Successive HS-AFM images of p62_268–440 with SNAP-Atg1. Height scale: 0–3.6 nm; scale bar: 30 nm. D. Schematics showing the molecular characteristics determined by HS-AFM. Gray spheres, globular domains consisting of N-terminal KD and C-terminal MIT of Atg1; pink spheres, globular domains consisting of C-terminal UBA domain of p62; blue thick solid lines, IDRs. NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers of the USC-F1.2-k0.15 AFM probe type were used.
Figure EV1 from “Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response” by Ryo Ikeda et al.:
HS-AFM observation of SNAP-ULK1 and p62 (268–440 aa), and complex of SNAP-Atg1/p62 (268–440 aa)
A, B. Successive HS-AFM images of SNAP-ULK1 (A) and p62_268–440 (B). Height scale: 0–4.4 nm (A), 0–3.4 nm (B); scale bar: 20 nm (A, B).
C. Successive HS-AFM images of p62_268–440 with SNAP-Atg1. Height scale: 0–3.6 nm; scale bar: 30 nm.
D. Schematics showing the molecular characteristics determined by HS-AFM. Gray spheres, globular domains consisting of N-terminal KD and C-terminal MIT of Atg1; pink spheres, globular domains consisting of C-terminal UBA domain of p62; blue thick solid lines, IDRs.

*Ryo Ikeda, Daisuke Noshiro, Hideaki Morishita, Shuhei Takada, Shun Kageyama, Yuko Fujioka, Tomoko Funakoshi, Satoko Komatsu-Hirota, Ritsuko Arai, Elena Ryzhii, Manabu Abe, Tomoaki Koga, Hozumi Motohashi, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Kenji Sakimura, Arata Horii, Satoshi Waguri, Yoshinobu Ichimura, Nobuo N Noda and Masaaki Komatsu
Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response
The EMBO Journal (2023)42:e113349
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2022113349

The article “Phosphorylation of phase-separated p62 bodies by ULK1 activates a redox-independent stress response” by Ryo Ikeda, Daisuke Noshiro, Hideaki Morishita, Shuhei Takada, Shun Kageyama, Yuko Fujioka, Tomoko Funakoshi, Satoko Komatsu-Hirota, Ritsuko Arai, Elena Ryzhii, Manabu Abe, Tomoaki Koga, Hozumi Motohashi, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Kenji Sakimura, Arata Horii, Satoshi Waguri, Yoshinobu Ichimura, Nobuo N Noda and Masaaki Komatsu is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Detecting Early-Stage Cohesion Due to Calcium Silicate Hydration with Rheology and Surface Force Apparatus

Extremely robust cohesion triggered by calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) precipitation during cement hardening makes concrete one of the most commonly used man-made materials. *

In the article “Detecting Early-Stage Cohesion Due to Calcium Silicate Hydration with Rheology and Surface Force Apparatus” Teresa Liberto, Andreas Nenning, Maurizio Bellotto, Maria Chiara Dalconi, Dominik Dworschak, Lukas Kalchgruber, Agathe Robisson, Markus Valtiner and Joanna Dziadkowiec present a proof-of-concept study, in which they seek an additional nanoscale understanding of early-stage cohesive forces acting between hydrating model tricalcium silicate (C3S) surfaces by combining rheological and surface force measurements. *

The composition and surface properties of the PLD-deposited calcium silicate films have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). *

The calcium silicate surfaces were initially scanned in air. Subsequently, the authors injected about 1 mL of MilliQ water on top of the films so that both the sample and the AFM tip were submersed and followed the evolution of topography within the same region on a surface. The resultant images were processed in AR software by applying a 5 × 5 median filter. Roughness values were reported as root-mean-square (rms) values of the measured surface heights. *

Teresa Liberto et al. further used Atomic Force Microscopy AFM to study the nanoscale details of the film topography. The measurements performed in air revealed that the calcium silicate films are polycrystalline and are composed of uniform-sized nanograins, smaller than 100 nm in diameter (Figure 6A). At larger scan sizes, they also detected a significant amount of much larger, micron-sized particles that contribute to the quite high surface roughness; however, these were mostly located on sample edges, away from the PLD plume center.*

Subsequent AFM measurements in liquid confirmed that the films do not undergo full dissolution in water for several hours, as tested by continuously scanning the surface fully immersed in water as shown in Figure 6B. The rms roughness of the films in air was 1.2 nm (scan size 1 × 1 μm2), and it significantly increased upon exposure to H2O (rms up to 7 nm for a scan size of 1 × 1 μm2; see Figure 6C). *

The authors also detected a significant change in the film topography in water, with nanoparticles becoming less defined on a surface. This indicates that the films reprecipitated or swelled in contact with water, suggesting the gel-like character of the reprecipitated layer.*

However, despite the low thickness of the PLD-deposited films, there was no indication of complete dissolution–reprecipitation of the films: a smooth mica substrate topography that would indicate film dissolution was not exposed and a rough particle-laden surface was preserved throughout the whole measurement in water. In addition, there was no evidence of complete film dissolution in the SFA measurements; dissolution-related reduction in film thickness would have been indicated by the SFA-coupled white-light interferometric fringes. Therefore, the thin films behave as good model systems to study the early dissolution–reprecipitation phase by microscale surface force measurements. *

NanoWorld ARROW-UHFAuD AFM probes were used for the Atomic Force Microscopy.

The findings presented in the article confirm the strong cohesive properties of hydrated calcium silicate surfaces that, based on the authors’ preliminary SFA measurements, are attributed to sharp changes in the surface microstructure. In contact with water, the brittle and rough C3S surfaces with little contact area weather into soft, gel-like C–S–H nanoparticles with a much larger surface area available for forming direct contacts between interacting surfaces. *

Figure 6. Atomic force microscopy topography maps of calcium silicate films in air (A) and in water ((B) sample immersed in H2O for 30 min). The panels below AFM maps show height profiles along the center of each AFM image as marked with a dashed magenta line. Note that the y axis is the same in both panels. (C) Comparison of the root-mean-square (rms) roughness measured in air and in water (over 1.5 h in the same position) for a 1 × 1 μm2 scan size. Each point corresponds to one AFM scan, including the measurement in air. NanoWorld ARROW-UHFAuD AFM probes were used.
Figure 6 from “Detecting Early-Stage Cohesion Due to Calcium Silicate Hydration with Rheology and Surface Force Apparatus “ by Teresa Liberto et al.:
Atomic force microscopy topography maps of calcium silicate films in air (A) and in water ((B) sample immersed in H2O for 30 min). The panels below AFM maps show height profiles along the center of each AFM image as marked with a dashed magenta line. Note that the y axis is the same in both panels. (C) Comparison of the root-mean-square (rms) roughness measured in air and in water (over 1.5 h in the same position) for a 1 × 1 μm2 scan size. Each point corresponds to one AFM scan, including the measurement in air.

*Teresa Liberto, Andreas Nenning, Maurizio Bellotto, Maria Chiara Dalconi, Dominik Dworschak, Lukas Kalchgruber, Agathe Robisson, Markus Valtiner and Joanna Dziadkowiec
Detecting Early-Stage Cohesion Due to Calcium Silicate Hydration with Rheology and Surface Force Apparatus
Langmuir 2022, 38, 48, 14988–15000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c02783

The article “Detecting Early-Stage Cohesion Due to Calcium Silicate Hydration with Rheology and Surface Force Apparatus” by Teresa Liberto, Andreas Nenning, Maurizio Bellotto, Maria Chiara Dalconi, Dominik Dworschak, Lukas Kalchgruber, Agathe Robisson, Markus Valtiner and Joanna Dziadkowiec is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.