Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation

Phonon polaritons (PhPs) have attracted significant interest in the nano-optics communities because of their nanoscale confinement and long lifetimes. Although PhP modification by changing the local dielectric environment has been reported, controlled manipulation of PhPs by direct modification of the polaritonic material itself has remained elusive.*

In the article “Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation” Yingjie Wu, Qingdong Ou, Yuefeng Yin, Yun Li, Weiliang Ma, Wenzhi Yu, Guanyu Liu, Xiaoqiang Cui, Xiaozhi Bao, Jiahua Duan, Gonzalo Álvarez-Pérez, Zhigao Dai, Babar Shabbir, Nikhil Medhekar, Xiangping Li, Chang-Ming Li, Pablo Alonso-González and Qiaoliang Bao demonstrate an effective chemical approach to manipulate PhPs in α-MoO3 by the hydrogen intercalation-induced perturbation of lattice vibrations.*

Their methodology establishes a proof of concept for chemically manipulating polaritons, offering opportunities for the growing nanophotonics community.*

The surface topography and near-field images presented in this article were captured using a commercial s-SNOM setup with a platinum iridium coated NanoWorld Arrow-NCPt AFM probe in tapping mode.*

Fig. 2 a) from “Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation” by Yingjie Wu et al. :
Reversible switching of PhPs in the L-RB of α-MoO3 a Schematic of the s-SNOM measurement and PhP propagation in a typical H-MoO3/α-MoO3 in-plane heterostructure.
2 a Schematic of the s-SNOM measurement and PhP propagation in a typical H-MoO3/α-MoO3 in-plane heterostructure. P
Fig. 2 a) from “Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation” by Yingjie Wu et al. :
Reversible switching of PhPs in the L-RB of α-MoO3 a Schematic of the s-SNOM measurement and PhP propagation in a typical H-MoO3/α-MoO3 in-plane heterostructure.
2 a Schematic of the s-SNOM measurement and PhP propagation in a typical H-MoO3/α-MoO3 in-plane heterostructure. Please follow this external link for the full figure: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16459-3/figures/2

*Yingjie Wu, Qingdong Ou, Yuefeng Yin, Yun Li, Weiliang Ma, Wenzhi Yu, Guanyu Liu, Xiaoqiang Cui, Xiaozhi Bao, Jiahua Duan, Gonzalo Álvarez-Pérez, Zhigao Dai, Babar Shabbir, Nikhil Medhekar, Xiangping Li, Chang-Ming Li, Pablo Alonso-González & Qiaoliang Bao
Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation
Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 2646 (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16459-3

Please follow this external link to read the full article https://rdcu.be/b46eT

Open Access The article “ Chemical switching of low-loss phonon polaritons in α-MoO3 by hydrogen intercalation “ by Yingjie Wu, Qingdong Ou, Yuefeng Yin, Yun Li, Weiliang Ma, Wenzhi Yu, Guanyu Liu, Xiaoqiang Cui, Xiaozhi Bao, Jiahua Duan, Gonzalo Álvarez-Pérez, Zhigao Dai, Babar Shabbir, Nikhil Medhekar, Xiangping Li, Chang-Ming Li, Pablo Alonso-González and Qiaoliang Bao is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas

Launching and manipulation of polaritons in van der Waals materials offers novel opportunities for applications such as field-enhanced molecular spectroscopy and photodetection.*

Particularly, the highly confined hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) in h-BN slabs attract growing interest for their capability of guiding light at the nanoscale. An efficient coupling between free space photons and HPhPs is, however, hampered by their large momentum mismatch.*

In the article “Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas” P. Pons-Valencia, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, M. M. Wiecha, V. Biolek, I. Dolado, S. Vélez,P. Li, P. Alonso-González, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, L. Martín-Moreno, R. Hillenbrand and A. Y. Nikitin show that resonant metallic antennas can efficiently launch HPhPs in thin h-BN slabs. Despite the strong hybridization of HPhPs in the h-BN slab and Fabry-Pérot plasmonic resonances in the metal antenna, the efficiency of launching propagating HPhPs in h-BN by resonant antennas exceeds significantly that of the non-resonant ones.

Their results provide fundamental insights into the launching of HPhPs in thin polar slabs by resonant plasmonic antennas, which will be crucial for phonon-polariton based nanophotonic devices.*

A commercial s-SNOM setup in which the oscillating (at a frequency Ω≅270kHz) metal-coated (Pt/Ir) AFM tip (NanoWorld ARROW-NCPt) was illuminated by p-polarized mid-IR radiation, was used.*

 Figure 4 from “Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas” by P. Pns-Valencia et al. : 
 Near-field imaging of the HPhPs launched by the gold antenna. a Schematics of the s-SNOM setup. b Illustration of antenna launching of HPhPs. The spatial distribution of the near-field (shown by the red and blue colors) is adapted from the simulation of Re(Ez). c Topography of the antenna. d Simulated near-field distribution, |E(x, y)|, created by the rod antenna on CaF2 (the field is taken at the top surface of the antenna). Scale bars in c, d are 0.5 μm. e, h Experimental near-field images. f, i Simulated near-field distribution |Ez(x, y)| (taken 150 nm away from the h-BN slab). g, j Simulated near-field distribution |Ez(z, y)| taken in the cross-section plane along the center of the rod antenna. In e–g ω = 1430 cm−1, while in h–j ω = 1515 cm−1. The scale bars in e–i are 2 μm and in g, j are 0.1 μm (vertical) and 0.5 μm (horizontal). The length of the antenna in all panels is L = 2.29 μm

Figure 4 from “Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas” by P. Pons-Valencia et al. :
Near-field imaging of the HPhPs launched by the gold antenna. a Schematics of the s-SNOM setup. b Illustration of antenna launching of HPhPs. The spatial distribution of the near-field (shown by the red and blue colors) is adapted from the simulation of Re(Ez). c Topography of the antenna. d Simulated near-field distribution, |E(x, y)|, created by the rod antenna on CaF2 (the field is taken at the top surface of the antenna). Scale bars in c, d are 0.5 μm. e, h Experimental near-field images. f, i Simulated near-field distribution |Ez(x, y)| (taken 150 nm away from the h-BN slab). g, j Simulated near-field distribution |Ez(z, y)| taken in the cross-section plane along the center of the rod antenna. In e–g ω = 1430 cm−1, while in h–j ω = 1515 cm−1. The scale bars in e–i are 2 μm and in g, j are 0.1 μm (vertical) and 0.5 μm (horizontal). The length of the antenna in all panels is L = 2.29 μm

*P. Pons-Valencia, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, M. M. Wiecha, V. Biolek, I. Dolado, S. Vélez,P. Li, P. Alonso-González, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, L. Martín-Moreno, R. Hillenbrand, A. Y. Nikitin
Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas
Nature Communications 2019; 10: 3242
doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11143-7

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642108/

Open Access: The paper « Launching of hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in h-BN slabs by resonant metal plasmonic antennas » by P. Pons-Valencia, F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, M. M. Wiecha, V. Biolek, I. Dolado, S. Vélez,P. Li, P. Alonso-González, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, L. Martín-Moreno, R. Hillenbrand and A. Y. Nikitin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM

In the article «Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM” Yanlong Li, Chuanhui Chen, John Burton, Kyungwha Park, James R Heflin and Chenggang Tao demonstrate that PCBM molecules self-assemble into bilayer structures on graphene and HOPG substrates. They used Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), and analyzed the observed morphology by comparison to molecular models.*

The AFM measurements were carried out in a dark environment. NanoWorld™ Pointprobe® NCST AFM probes were used in soft tapping mode and simultaneous height and phase images were acquired and reproduced across multiple samples.*

The results of this study shed light on improvement of the energy efficiency in solar cells containing graphene and organic molecules, by increasing the donor–acceptor interface area and could provide valuable insight into fabrication of new hybrid, ordered structures for applications to organic solar cells.*

Figure 5. from “Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM” by Yanlong Li et al.: AFM images of PCBM bilayer and size distributions of holes at different conditions. (a) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer before annealing. (b) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer after annealing at 140 °C. (c) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer after annealing at 160 °C. (d) Area distribution histogram of holes (without PCBM area) obtained from measurements of the area of holes in AFM images of before (green) and after annealing at 140 °C (dark red) and 160 °C (dark blue). Monolithic silicon cantilevers (NCST, NANO WORLD) with a spring constant of 7.4 N m−1, first longitudinal resonance frequencies between 120 and 205 kHz, and nominal tip radius of 8 nm were employed in soft tapping mode. Simultaneous height and phase images were acquired and reproduced across multiple samples.
Figure 5. from “Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM” by Yanlong Li et al.: AFM images of PCBM bilayer and size distributions of holes at different conditions. (a) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer before annealing. (b) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer after annealing at 140 °C. (c) AFM image of a PCBM bilayer after annealing at 160 °C. (d) Area distribution histogram of holes (without PCBM area) obtained from measurements of the area of holes in AFM images of before (green) and after annealing at 140 °C (dark red) and 160 °C (dark blue).

*Yanlong Li, Chuanhui Chen, John Burton, Kyungwha Park, James R Heflin, Chenggang Tao
Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM
Nanotechnology, Volume 29, Number 18 (2018)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aab00a

Open Access The article “Self-assembled PCBM bilayers on graphene and HOPG examined by AFM and STM” by Yanlong Li et al. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 International License. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/