Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers

Lipid membranes play a key role in living systems by providing a structural barrier that separates cellular compartments. Bilayer fluidity in the lateral plane is a key property of lipid membranes, that allows the membrane to have sufficient flexibility to accommodate dynamic stresses, shape changes and rearrangements accompanying the cellular lifecycle.*

In the article “Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers” Kylee Sullivan, Yuliang Zhang, Joseph Lopez, Mary Lowe and Aleksandr Noy describe how they used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the behavior of CNTPs in a mixed lipid membrane consisting of DOPC lipid with a variable percentage of DMPC lipid added to it. HS-AFM data reveal that the CNTPs undergo diffusive motion in the bilayer plane.*

Motion trajectories extracted from the HS-AFM movies indicate that CNTPs exhibit diffusion coefficient values broadly similar to values reported for membrane proteins in supported lipid bilayers. The data also indicate that increasing the percentage of DMPC leads to a marked slowing of CNTP diffusion. MD simulations reveal a CNTP-lipid assembly that diffuses in the membrane and show trends that are consistent with the experimental observations. *

The above-mentioned study confirms that CNTPs mimic the major features of the diffusive movement of biological pores in lipid membranes and shows how the increase in bilayer viscosity leads to a corresponding slowdown in protein motion. It should be possible to extend this approach to studies of other membrane protein dynamics in supported lipid bilayers. The authors note that those studies, however, will need to be mindful of the challenge of unambiguous visualization of the membrane components, especially in systems that incorporate smaller proteins, such as antimicrobial peptides. Another challenge that could complicate these studies would be microscopic phase separation of the lipid matrix that could lead to complicated pore dynamics in the membrane. *

NanoWorld Ultra-Short AFM cantilevers with high-density carbon/diamond-like carbon (HDC/DLC) AFM tips of the USC-F1.2-k0.15 type were used for the high-speed atomic force microscopy described in the article. *

Figure 2 from “Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers” by Kylee Sullivan et al.:

CNTP motion in supported lipid bilayers. (a) Representative frames (with times in seconds indicated on each image) from an HS-AFM movie showing a CNTP diffusing in a supported lipid bilayer with 80:20 DOPC-DMPC ratio (see also Supplementary Movie 2). (b) A representative trajectory for CNTP diffusion in the bilayer. The time step between each datapoint is 0.5 s. NanoWorld Ultra-Short AFM Cantilvers USC-F1.2-k0.15 were used for the HS-AFM imaging
Figure 2 a and b from “Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers” by Kylee Sullivan et al.:

CNTP motion in supported lipid bilayers. (a) Representative frames (with times in seconds indicated on each image) from an HS-AFM movie showing a CNTP diffusing in a supported lipid bilayer with 80:20 DOPC-DMPC ratio (see also Supplementary Movie 2). (b) A representative trajectory for CNTP diffusion in the bilayer. The time step between each datapoint is 0.5 s.
Please refer to the full article cited below for the full figure.

*Kylee Sullivan, Yuliang Zhang, Joseph Lopez, Mary Lowe and Aleksandr Noy
Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers
Nature Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 11908 (2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68059-2

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://rdcu.be/b69wj

Open Access : The article “Carbon nanotube porin diffusion in mixed composition supported lipid bilayers” by Kylee Sullivan, Yuliang Zhang, Joseph Lopez, Mary Lowe and Aleksandr Noy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

The free energy landscape of retroviral integration

Retroviral integration, the process of covalently inserting viral DNA into the host genome, is a point of no return in the replication cycle. Yet, strand transfer is intrinsically iso-energetic and it is not clear how efficient integration can be achieved.*

In the article “The free energy landscape of retroviral integration” published in Nature Communications Willem Vanderlinden, Tine Brouns, Philipp U. Walker, Pauline J. Kolbeck, Lukas F. Milles, Wolfgang Ott, Philipp C. Nickels, Zeger Debyser and Jan Lipfert use biochemical assays, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and multiplexed single-molecule magnetic tweezers (MT) to study tetrameric prototype foamy virus (PFV) strand-transfer dynamics.*

Their finding that PFV intasomes employ auxiliary-binding sites for modulating the barriers to integration raises the question how the topology of higher-order intasomes governs integration of pathogenic retroviruses, most notably HIV. The single-molecule assays developed in this work are expected to be particularly useful to further unravel the complexity of this important class of molecular machines.*

The AFM images were recorded in amplitude modulation mode under ambient conditions and by using NanoWorld high resolution SuperSharpSiliconSSS-NCH cantilevers ( resonance frequency ≈300 kHz; typical end-radius 2 nm; half-cone angle <10 deg). Typical scans were recorded at 1–3 Hz line frequency, with optimized feedback parameters and at 512 × 512 pixels.*

Figure 2 e, f and g from “The free energy landscape of retroviral integration” by Willem Vanderlinden et al. 
(please refer to the full article for the complete figure 2  https://rdcu.be/b0R63 ) :
  e Atomic Force Microscopy image of intasomes incubated briefly (2 min) with supercoiled plasmid DNA, depicting a branched complex as found in ~50% of early complexes.
  f  Atomic Force Microscopy image of a bridging complex that dominates (~80%) the population of complexes at longer (>45 min) incubation. 
 g  Atomic Force Microscopy image of a gel-purified STC
Figure 2 e, f and g from “The free energy landscape of retroviral integration” by Willem Vanderlinden et al.
(please refer to the full article for the complete figure 2 https://rdcu.be/b0R63 ) :
 e AFM image of intasomes incubated briefly (2 min) with supercoiled plasmid DNA, depicting a branched complex as found in ~50% of early complexes.
 f AFM image of a bridging complex that dominates (~80%) the population of complexes at longer (>45 min) incubation.
g AFM image of a gel-purified STC

*Willem Vanderlinden, Tine Brouns, Philipp U. Walker, Pauline J. Kolbeck, Lukas F. Milles, Wolfgang Ott, Philipp C. Nickels, Zeger Debyser, Jan Lipfert
The free energy landscape of retroviral integration
Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 4738 (2019)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12649-w

Please follow this external link to read the full article: https://rdcu.be/b0R63

Open Access The article “The free energy landscape of retroviral integration“ by Willem Vanderlinden, Tine Brouns, Philipp U. Walker, Pauline J. Kolbeck, Lukas F. Milles, Wolfgang Ott, Philipp C. Nickels, Zeger Debyser and Jan Lipfert is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds

In the article “Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds” the authors show that “dependent on curvature, membrane affinity and surface density, DNA origami coats can indeed reproduce the activity of membrane-sculpting proteins such as BAR, suggesting exciting perspectives for using them in bottom-up approaches towards minimal biomimetic cellular machineries.”*

The AFM images for this article were taken in high-speed AC mode using NanoWorld Ultra-Short Cantilevers of the USC-F0.3-k0.3 type.

Supplementary Figure 5 b from Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds: Characterization of folded DNA origami nanoscaffolds. ( a ) Assembly of the folded bare origami structures L, Q, H was initially assessed via agarose gel (2%) electrophoresis analysis. Lanes containing marker DNA ladder (1kb) and M13 single - stranded p7249 sc affold (Sc) were also included. ( b ) Structure of folded bare origami L, Q and H was further validated using negative - stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM ; scale bar s : 100 nm ) and atomic force microscopy (AFM ; scale bar s : 200nm ).
Supplementary Figure 5 b from “Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds”:
Characterization of folded DNA origami nanoscaffolds.
b) Structure of folded bare origami L, Q and H was further validated using negative-stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM; scale bars: 100 nm) and atomic force microscopy (AFM; scale bars: 200nm).

*Henri G. Franquelim, Alena Khmelinskaia, Jean-Philippe Sobczak, Hendrik Dietz, Petra Schwille
Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds
Nature Communicationsvolume 9, Article number: 811 (2018)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03198-9

Please follow this link to the full article: https://rdcu.be/8zZi

Open Access: The article “Membrane sculpting by curved DNA origami scaffolds” by Franquelim et. al is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.